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Apr 21, 2015

Flour Basics

Learn About Flour from Jenny Can Cook“Which flour do I use for bread, or muffins, or cookies?” “Can I substitute one flour for another?” “Why is my flour mixture so dry?” I hope this helps clarify any questions you have about flour. By the way, with all baking the amount of protein in flour matters. The lower the protein, the softer the baked goods. So here is my simple guideline to baking with flour:

How to Measure (& Aerate) Flour
Flour must be aerated before measuring because it often settles in the bag or container making it heavy  and compact, resulting in too much flour being measured. Aerating basically means fluffing it up and is not the same as sifting. Flour should not be sifted before measuring unless the recipe states to do so. Sifting will result in too little flour being measured.

If you dip into flour without aerating, you will be getting too much flour and your dough will be too dry. To aerate flour you simply stir it around with a spoon before measuring. To measure, be sure to use a flat-topped dry measuring cup like in my photo. To see a short video on how to aerate flour click here.

After aerating, there are two ways to measure the flour: 1) Scoop & Level – Gently scoop the flour up with a spoon and sprinkle it into your measuring cup until it’s mounded above the rim. Do not tap the cup or the container of flour. Finally, level off the excess flour with the back of a knife. 2) Dip & Level – Gently dip your measuring cup into the flour until it’s mounded above the rim and level off the excess flour with the back of a knife. In my kitchen, a cup a flour weighs 4 1/2 ounces (130 grams).

The Difference Between Flours

Whole wheat flour (about 14% protein/gluten)
Whole wheat flour is not the same as whole wheat pastry flour and should not be substituted for whole wheat pastry flour. Whole wheat flour is milled from hard winter wheat and is best used only for yeast breads. A loaf made entirely with whole wheat flour will be a dense and somewhat heavy loaf. For a softer loaf, it is often combined with some all-purpose or bread flour. Whole wheat flour is not suitable for other baking like cookies and cakes. *Since it contains the germ of the wheat which contains oil, once opened, this flour should be kept refrigerated in a tightly sealed container.

Whole wheat pastry flour (about 10% protein/gluten)
Also called whole grain pastry flour, this flour is good for most recipes that use all-purpose flour when you want to add fiber. Whole wheat pastry flour is milled from a soft summer wheat and is best for baking cookies, brownies, pancakes, waffles, quick breads, and some cakes. Results will not be as light and soft as using all-purpose flour but you can also mix part whole wheat pastry flour and part all-purpose flour for soft baked goods with added fiber. (I use this flour the most in cookies, brownies, even pancakes & waffles for extra fiber) This flour is not a good substitute for whole wheat flour and is not suitable for baking yeast breads. Don’t have whole wheat pastry flour? Regular whole wheat flour is not a good substitute – your baked goods will be dense and heavy. Look for whole wheat pastry flour at health food stores or you can order it online. Once opened, it should be kept refrigerated in a tightly-sealed container.

Bread flour (about 14% protein/gluten)
This flour is designed for yeast baking. It helps create more gluten for a better rise in yeast doughs. Use it for yeast bread and pizza dough for a chewy texture and good structure. However, all-purpose flour works almost as well with yeast. From my experience, if you don’t have bread flour, all-purpose flour can be used as a substitute in yeast bread and pizza dough.

All-purpose flour (about 10% protein/gluten)
The name says it all. Use it for cookies, cakes, quick breads, yeast breads, pies, pancakes, etc.

Pastry flour (about 9% protein/gluten)
This flour falls between all-purpose flour and cake flour and can be used in pastries, cookies and cakes. This flour is not suitable for baking yeast breads.

Cake flour (about 8% protein/gluten)
This very fine grain flour is good in light and airy cakes like angel food cake. However, if a recipe does not call for cake flour and you decide to use it, you would use more (2 tablespoons more per each cup). Conversely, if a recipe calls for cake flour and you don’t have it, you can make your own: For one cup of cake flour, measure one cup of all-purpose flour, remove 2 tablespoons of flour and replace that with 2 tablespoons of cornstarch. I do not use cake flour – I don’t find it necessary. This flour is not suitable for baking yeast breads.

Self-rising flour (about 8 % protein/gluten)
This soft flour is similar to pastry flour but has salt and baking powder added. Many southern recipes call for this flour in biscuits and pancakes but if the recipe calls for all-purpose flour and you substitute self-rising flour, you will need to adjust any added salt and baking powder. (one cup of self-rising flour contains 1 ½ teaspoons of baking powder and ¼ to ½ teaspoon of salt) This flour is not suitable for yeast breads.

I hope these simple flour basics are helpful. – Jenny Jones

92 Comments on "Flour Basics"

  1. Loretta

    What would the ingredients measurements be if I was to use coconut flour to make bread? Trying to stay away from white flower. I made your bread Jenny and was easy to make and delicious. Thank you Loretta

    • Jenny Can Cook

      Yeast breads need gluten, which coconut flour does not have, so I believe the recipe would fail using coconut flour.

  2. Fay

    Hi Jenny, I live in Toronto, Canada. Love your easy and simple recipes. Make bread and cakes every week. My question is how do you measure frozen butter when the recipe asks for one cup? Does it come out exact? Thanks

  3. Theresa

    Can I use Almond flour or coconut flour or both.

  4. ricarda

    Can you use dough conditioner (dough improver/enhancer) in this recipe. If not….. can you tell me why? I have some and wondering if I could use it and how it would affect the recipe.

  5. Francesca

    Hi Jenny,

    Can I use Semolina flour in your bread recipe? Thanks in advance for your reply.

  6. Anne

    Hello from Canada. Just discovered this site; its great. As you grew up here I’m sure you know Canadian flour is “hard”. I find I have to add more water for some bread / pastry recipes. Would that be true for your recipes ?

  7. Bonnie Garner

    Do you have a recipe for a gluten free bread? Can spelt flour be used for this or instead of regular flour?

    Thank you!

    • joanne

      Spelt is a form of wheat and as such does contain gluten. Be very cautious if you are dealing with a true gluten sensitivity. It is best to avoid all forms of gluten and thoroughly research your grains and products..

  8. john daniell

    I would like to use 4 cups of AP flour with 2 cups of hot water as you prescribe just to have a bigger loaf. What is the cooking time?
    Thank you.

  9. Cyn

    Jenny, no need for response, this is just a THANKYOU for your hilarious sense of humor and videos with wonderfully easy and delicious recipes! Love you!

  10. Carol

    Hi Jenny,
    I love your recipes and videos, poppy seed cake at the top of my all-time favorites!!
    Just a comment on using self- rising flour:
    I googled a recipe for scones and got one from England using “lemonade” (7-Up) and self rising flour. England’s or maybe UK self-rising flour has no salt in it so they add it to
    their recipes. I shudda checked that first
    Like washing off the dirty baseball!! Lol luv you. Grew up in Irvington, NJ in a Polish neighborhood, (I’m Filipino and German, go figure) and your recipes brought me “home!”

  11. Rarefruit

    Thanks, Jenny! This explained a lot. So kind of you to take the time.

  12. Farida

    I have celiac and for Gluten Free breads or any baking I substitue 1-1 Gluten Free Flour Bob’s Mill or from Bulk Barn and works perfect for any baking.
    Does not need any addition of Guar or Xtham gum.

  13. Carol Novacek

    Would it be OK to use bread flour in your cinnamon roll recipe? Will it work as well as all purpose?

  14. Marion

    Hi with the no knead bread using whole wheat flour do you still put in 3 cups thanks

  15. bea latour

    Hi there Jenny from New Brunswick, Canada. I would like to make a multigrain sandwich bread and wonder if multigrain flour can be substituted for part of the flour in your white or whole wheat bread recipes?
    Your videos are great!

    • Jenny Can Cook

      I think it depends on what the grains are in that flour. Can you let me know the ingredients?

  16. Marilla

    Hi Jenny
    Just wanted to comment on your metric conversions particularity with respect to flour. I noticed that you changed the weight to volume ratio to 1 cup is equal to 120 gm. rather than the original 130 you had before.
    This may be technically correct but it is not correct for your recipes. Your method of aerating yields a cup that measure 130 gm. That is what works in your recipes.
    I followed the new weight and got really runny dough for the no knead buns. (I had made then 2 times before with no issues.)
    I am glad that I found your original weight when I checked out how to aerate flour and have change back my recipes to this value.
    Others who use weight may find this information useful.

    I love your website and the video’s. You make baking look so easy.Thanks

    • Jenny Can Cook

      I have been so torn about the weight thing. After so many people corrected me I decided to go with what seems to be standard but I appreciate this input. Thank you.

      • PC

        There’s much confusion online about that. If you look up “King Arthur flour weight”, for example, you find the brand says 120g for a cup, but they also say 4.25 oz which is more than 120g, and they used to say 4.5 oz which is closer to 130g. Ben Mims wrote an article about this and noted the following (and this isn’t even the whole chart!):
        King Arthur Flour: 120 grams
        Bake From Scratch: 125 grams
        Bon Appétit: 130 grams 136 grams
        Cook’s Illustrated: 142 grams

        When I started baking Jenny’s breads, I just wrote down what weight the was each time, and now I go with a kind of average that works for me. And the more you bake, the more familiar you get with how your successful doughs look/feel. I tend closer to 130g, too. (Not sure how accurate my scale is, either. Seems to be a gram off when I weigh the instant yeast from a packet!)

        Recently I made Jenny’s whole wheat sandwich bread, but my dough was pretty wet/shaggy. However, I also read in a baking book that that’s ok for whole wheat breads, so they come out softer and less heavy/dense– and it totally worked! So, even though I also wished for a gram measurement, I think there are too many variables to really solve this, so I’m just grateful for these fantastic simple recipes that gave me the courage to start baking bread at all! Lots of love and much gratitude! -PC

  17. M

    Hi Jenny,

    Brilliant bread recipes! I can confirm that sprouted spelt flour works beautifully in the faster no knead bread recipe.

    My family has all the food allergies and intolerances (nuts,seeds,wheat etc) and as such we can’t eat store bought bread. I’ve been baking my own for years with all the steps of proofing, kneading… kneading again… etc. Your recipe has changed my life! Thank you!

  18. Marmom

    Being gluten free can any of your recipets be converted by using GF flours..
    All of your recipes look wonderful and I would so love to use them. Also,
    am of Polish herritage. Thank you so much!!

  19. Irene

    Has anyone had success making the no knead bread gluten free. What flours did you use?

    • Jenny Can Cook

      I tried and it didn’t work. See the FAQs.

    • Kelly Brady

      I have them in the oven right now-I used Bob’s Redmill GF flour. They didn’t really rise like I thought they would. Waiting to see how they turn out. There are other brands of flour that might be better. Could also try almond flour. I will let you know the results but they smell great!

  20. DHTaylor

    I came across your ‘no knead’ bread in the casserole recipe today and am very excited about trying it. Right now the shaggy mix is on the far end of my counter for the next 3 or 4 hours. I am hoping that your recipe will work in my oven, which is a 48 year old Aga cookstove I’ve had and moved from farm to farm. It’s on all the time, but the temp is somewhat adjustable for the roasting oven with the addition of a ‘cover’ inside. So……hopefully the style/type of oven will work. When I bake bread I generally throw in a handful of ice cubes when I first put the bread in.

    • Enid

      Hello!! I’m making the very same bread today, for the first time. I have had the recipe for years, but never knew that you could make it the fast way by adding hot water!! I’m at the “35 minute/dutch oven heating up” stage right now!! I LOVE that I found Jenny’s site!

      • lawson baron5 roses

        Remember!!! when using hotter water 120-130*f you must also use Instant, Fast Rise Yeast not, Active Dry. 120* water will kill the yeast. Also with Instant yeast, the first is only 10 minutes.
        Hope this helps..

        • Fionna

          I just made a loaf with active dry, not instant, yeast. Water was 120°f. The yeast definitely was not dead! ?

        • Krumkake

          My Fleischmann’s Bake-it-easy Yeast Book confirms that active dry yeast can be used in Rapidrise recipes, that is, where the yeast is mixed into the flour and hot liquid (120-130%) stirred in. I have been making bread according to this method with active dry yeast for over 30 years and never killed my yeast yet.

  21. Terri Garnett

    Jenny I seem to have to add more water to the no knead wheat dutch oven bread recipe. After several attempts the last time i made bread it wasnt quite as heavy but outside very hard and always better next day. I am grinding wheat berries in vita mix blender and flour is a little grainy. Should I use less and add all purpose flour?

    • Jenny Can Cook

      Which recipe are you using?

    • Clareese

      I have a stone wheat grinder. Haven’t tried the recipe yet. Should I grind the flour very fine? Let it rest? or just grind and use? Thanks

  22. Carol

    Hi, I tried the no knead artisan bread and it came out great. Next time of grief whole wheat flour and it was so dense and heavy. How would I make that better?

  23. Bubbasuzy

    Hi, Jenny!
    I know this sounds stupid, but would it be possible for you to send me the gluten-free recipe you tried and failed? I am at my wits end trying to find a gluten-free bread recipe that really works. I might be able to amend it myself by knowing what you did that did not work. Is it possible for you to send this to me thanks?

    • Jenny Can Cook

      I just followed my faster no knead bread recipe and swapped the bread flour with gluten free flour.

    • Donna

      Try Carol’s All-Purpose Gluten Free flour. It has worked great in other recipes. I am looking forward to trying it with this bread recipe.
      You can find this flour @

  24. Rick

    Faster No Knead Whole Wheat Bread
    Can I use 3 cups of “Whole Wheat Bread Flour”, instead of the 2 & 1?
    Thanks for all the recipes Jenny.

  25. Judy

    Hi busy Jenny,

    Would you ever try einkorn flour to make your breads, baked goods, etc?
    Check it out on Facebook:)
    I will wait patiently for your answer.
    Thank you,


    • Angel Raudner

      I have made this bread per recipe with All Purpose Einkorn flour twice. The dough was very wet and I added more flour, but the bread came out very well. The third time I added about ¼ cup less water. Didn’t stress the looseness of batter and poured it into Dutch oven rather than forming a ball. Made a delicious bread.

  26. aes

    have you made anything using Carbquik or Carbolose?

  27. aes

    Have you made anything using Carbolose or Carbquik (flour substitutes)?

  28. aes

    Have you made anything with Carbolose or Carbquik?

  29. Suzie

    Have you ever made your Faster No Knead Bread with gluten free flour (Bob’s 1 to 1 flour)?
    Thank you.

  30. GB Smith

    Just a thought, use a food scale to measure ingredients, I get more consistent results and can measure different ingredients In the same bowl.

  31. TatBat

    I’m a pretty decent cook but the only thing I could bake that people actually liked or asked for seconds was cheesecake.
    Notice I used the words, “could bake”.
    Thanks to Jenny I CAN bake bread now.

  32. Ed

    You state that self rising flour is not suitable for yeast breads. My grandmother and I would have to take some issue with that. Her recipe for Irish Soda rolls calls for half self rising flour and half all purpose (or bread) flour and also uses yeast, so is certainly a yeast bread, though some of the leavening comes from the self rising flour too.

    The final consistency is somewhere between a biscuit and a fluffy roll made with only yeast, and is delicious.

    • Jenny Can Cook

      Thanks for sharing this – I learned something new.

  33. Kristina

    Hi Jenny.while back I saw you making sweet buns they call Jagodzianki in polish with blueberries . I saw you on YouTube making them and I cannot find it. if you don’t mind I would really appreciated if you can send me the recipe I love you recipes thank you so much Christina

    • Jenny Can Cook

      Sorry, that was not me.

    • Larisa

      Hi Jenny,
      I like your recipes. Most of all I like your entusiasm when explaining the receipes.
      I hope that you still have the recipe for: Jagodzianki or Jagodniki. Sweet yeast dough with blueberries. Thanks a lot for explaining in such details, whatever you prepare. Thanks for the receipes.

  34. martha

    What about gluten free flour

  35. Trish Pines

    Hello! Thanks for all the info. I’m hooked on your No Knead bread – a couple times my bread has been a little more dense and a few have been more airy. Any tips on keeping my end result more consistent? Also, what is the difference between sifting and aerating?

    Thanks and Happy New Year!

    • Pat

      Whenever I wish my bread to be less dense I add gluten.

  36. Crystal

    It turned out perfect! Such an easy recipe!

  37. Frieda

    I have tried it twice and still mine do not rise. I don’t understand what could old be wrong. My is good and sits at room temp (I keep it in the Refrigerator. It does come to room temperature. I am using 50/50 flour. Mine never works.

    • Jenny

      Please tell me which recipe and your exact ingredients and I will try to help. I want my recipes to work for everyone.

  38. John

    Have you ever used unbleached all purpose flour? If so, are there any changes that have to be made?

  39. Charlotte

    I just came across this morning. Thank you for the simple, healthy, quick recipes and the details you provide about the ingredients and recipe instructions. And the videos are great. The tutorial on the various kinds of flour is most helpful. So many recipes I want to try.

  40. Jen

    I made these with Garlic Flavored Olive Oil and they turned out amazing! Thanks for the recipe, Jenny! 🙂

  41. gittl

    i use spelt flour … i make challah (bread every week) just a small amount usually. 3 cups makes about 9 rolls or a loaf. i know there’s a difference with the amount one uses for other flours

    i’d like to know when i use other recipes what’s the equation/difference when measuring the flour. thanks love your show love the colours

  42. Susi

    Have you or has anyone else experimented with King Arthur’s ‘White Whole Wheat Flour’ in any of your baked goods?

    I’m thinking I may try using it in No Knead Bread?? What do you think??

    • Pat

      In a mad moment, my husband bought 50 pounds of it, so I have been using it
      in all my baking where I would use whole wheat flour. It is whole wheat flour, but just lighter. Lighter, not white. I truly see no advantage to using it over whole wheat flour, and certainly not a substitute for white flour.

  43. Just Jan

    Hi Jenny
    Hello from Kitchener, Ontario, Canada
    Any chance you might experiment with gluten free recipes? We are wheat free and use almond flour or coconut flour for our baking.
    Thank you for such a wonderful website. It’s not only informative and aesthetically pleasing but it’s user friendly!

  44. Antoinette

    Hi Jenny, a friend of mine gave me your recipe for no knead bread and now I am hooked!! Thank you!
    I was just wondering would spelt flour work for the no knead bread recipe as well?

    • Jenny

      I’m not sure it has the right kind of gluten. You may need to research this.

  45. ana

    hi jenny,can your tortilla recipe be doubled?

  46. luckey

    i have tried your crusty yeast rolls twice. The first time I thought my flour was old. I purchased new all purpose flour. Made the rolls according to the recipe, let it rise 3 hours (dough didn’t look like yours). Dough was more dense and looked heavy not light & sticky. Couldn’t make the lil draw string pouches, but did have 8 rolls. Let sit on counter 35 mins. Placed in 450* preheated oven for 25 mins they turned out hard & heavy. (1st time the inside wasn’t done, 2nd time the inside was more done, but outside uneatable) What went wrong? Please advise.

    • Jenny

      I will try to help. First, you need to aerate the flour before measuring, otherwise, you’ll be using too much flour but I’m guessing you did that. Second, yeast has a very short shelf life and once opened, should be tightly sealed and kept in the freezer. It’s possible your yeast was stale. If you answer these questions, I may be able to help further. 1) How long did you preheat the oven? 2. What kind of flour did you use (brand & type)? Did you use VERY hot tap water? Let me know…

      • luckey

        it takes 20 mins for my oven to preheat to 450*, but I let the dough rest for 35 mins before putting into the oven. The yeast I just bought the day before. The flour was store brand and I did airate the flour. The water was hot, not boiling from my tap.

        • Jenny

          It looks like you’re doing everything right so I’m not sure I can help you. You didn’t say the brand & type of yeast so please let me know. And do you have an oven thermometer to confirm your temperature?

      • luckey

        The flour was store brand (Southern Biscuit / all purpose flour)

        • Jenny

          A dough that’s too heavy can only mean too much flour or not enough liquid – maybe you could adjust a little. The only thing left I can suggest is that the rolls need that first blast of a very hot oven and it’s possible your oven was not at 450 (my oven takes 30-35 minutes to reach 450) and I assume this is standard size oven with room for air to circulate. Other than that, I’m sorry these rolls have not worked for you.

    • Lyre

      Hello I too have had the same experience and not going to try this recipe again and I found they tasted very salty.. In North Bay, Ontario, Canada I’d call them Hockey Pucks..LOL!! Thanks, anyway..

  47. Lou Ray

    how long can i keep all purpose flour? does it expire?

  48. Doris

    still received no reply from you. where did u buy all these colourful spatulas

    • Jenny

      I never expected the thousands of daily visitors that come here and to my youtube channel and the number of questions is overwhelming. I do my best but sometimes it takes several days for me to catch up. I only share my recipes as a hobby so thanks for understanding.

  49. Doris

    Jenny, love yr baking equipment, where did u buy alL those colourful spatula, cups, bowl etc n yr big wide blue working board for rolling your dough.
    U are a great baker, interesting n fun to watch. thank alot. hope to see more videos on all yr wonderful recipes posted on yr blogs

    • Jenny

      I find most of my colorful items at places like Sur La Table, Pier One, World Market, Target, and even some hardware stores. The blue board came from Star Restaurant Supply here in Los Angeles.

  50. Kimberly C.

    Thank you for this information! I see what you mean by aerating now and I’m sure it will make all the difference in my tortillas.

  51. Terry

    Can your bread recipe be doubled?

    • Jenny

      Which bread recipe?

      • Terry

        The one with only 4 ingredients,white flour,salt, and yeast and hot water

        • Jenny

          Yes, it can be doubled as long as the Dutch oven is at least 6 quarts.

          • Terry

            Thank you Jenny. I love all your recippes and videos.

            • Mike

              Thanks is helping me prepare my bread This recipe is the best and you are perfect in prezant this recipe I wish you the best. Thanks

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